Portrait of Armand Jean du Plessis (1585-1642), 1st Duke of Richelieu (1629), Chief Minister to the French Monarch (1624-1642), Cardinal (1622), 1637
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (French: Cardinal de Richelieu, was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered.
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