Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1729-1796), Queen consort of Denmark and Norway (1752-1766); de facto Regent of Denmark and Norway (1772-1784)
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern (Danish: Juliane Marie af Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel; 4 September 1729 – 10 October 1796) was queen of Denmark and Norway between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784. King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her. Born as daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, she held the rank of a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel with the style Princess. Juliana Maria was given the simple but very strict upbringing usual at many of the smaller princely German courts. She married King Frederick V of Denmark at Frederiksborg Palace on 8 July 1752, just over six months after the death of his first wife Louise of Great Britain, and was crowned the same day. The marriage was arranged by Count Moltke, who thought it best that the king remarried as soon as possible, in an attempt of stabilizing his behavior. Juliana Maria was personally described as good-looking and sensible, but the marriage was not popular in Denmark, where it was considered to have taken place too soon after the death of her predecessor, the popular former queen Louise, and it was a difficult task for her to replace her popular predecessor. She did her best to accustom herself to Denmark and make herself popular as queen, and although she never fully mastered the Danish language, she frequently used it both by speaking and writing it. Despite these efforts, she never managed to make herself a popular queen. Despite the constant infidelity of King Frederick V, she was regarded to have illustrated an ideal of a spousal duty, accepting his infidelity without complaint and nursing him during his illness. As a queen, Juliana Maria lived a quiet and subdued life and had nothing to do with the affairs of state whatsoever. In 1766, she was widowed, and her stepson Christian VII became king. In 1770, the new king, her stepson King Christian VII of Denmark, had become insane and the power had fallen in the hands of his consort Caroline Matilda of Great Britain and her lover Johann Friedrich Struensee. Juliane Marie became the centre of the opposition, and she belonged to the group participating in the coup d'état that brought down the government of Struensee by exposing his affair with the queen. The son of Juliane Marie, Hereditary Prince Frederick, was now made regent. In reality, he was the puppet of his mother, who was the real and undisputed ruler during his regency, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg.
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