Pedro II (1648-1706), King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683-1706), Regent of Portugal (1668-1683)
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II of Portugal; 26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706), was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1683 until his death, previously serving as regent for his brother King Afonso VI from 1668 until his own accession. He was the fifth and last child of King John IV and his wife Queen Luisa de Guzmán. Peter consolidated Portugal's independence with the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668, putting the Portuguese Restoration War, that began in 1640, to an end. He formed an alliance with England and had its decisive support based on marriage clauses that united Charles II of England with his sister Catherine of Braganza in 1661. The English alliance was decisive in the consolidation of Peter's leadership. He centralized the monarchy's power and dissolved the excessive strength the nobility had gained after the death of John IV in 1656. His long tenure was one of important accomplishments. In 1671 he conceded freedom of commerce to the English residing in Portugal and began the establishment of textile manufactures.
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