John IV (1604-1656), King of Portugal and the Algarves (1640-1656), Duke of Braganza (John II) from 1630 to 1645
John IV (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death. He was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, who had in 1580 claimed the Portuguese crown and sparked the struggle for the throne of Portugal. John IV was nicknamed John the Restorer (João o Restaurador). On the eve of his death in 1656, the Portuguese Empire reached its territorial zenith, spanning the globe. He was one of the main forces behind the independence of Portugal after Spanish rule. John IV was born at Vila Viçosa and succeeded his father Teodósio II as Duke of Braganza when the latter died insane in 1630. He married Luisa de Guzmán (1613–1666), eldest daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia, in 1633.
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