Portrait of Gaspar de Guzmán (1587-1645), Count of Olivares, Duke of Sanlúcar (1625); de facto Prime Minister of Spain (valido del rey Felipe IV) from 1622 to 1643
Don Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel Ribera y Velasco de Tovar, Count of Olivares and Duke of Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grandee of Spain (Spanish: Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, conde-duque de Olivares, also known as Conde de Olivares y duque de Sanlúcar la Mayor, Grande de España; January 6, 1587 – July 22, 1645), was a Spanish royal favourite of Philip IV and minister. As prime minister from 1621 to 1643, he over-exerted Spain in foreign affairs and unsuccessfully attempted domestic reform. His policy of committing Spain to recapture Holland led to a renewal of the Eighty Years' War while Spain was also embroiled in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). In addition, his attempts to centralized power and increase wartime taxation led to revolts in Catalonia and in Portugal, which brought about his downfall.
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