Portrait of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo (1507-1582), 3rd Duke of Alba (1531), Governor of Milan (1555-1556), Viceroy of Naples (1556-1558), Governor of the Netherlands (1567-1573), Viceroy of Portugal (1580-1582), High Steward (Mayordomo mayor) to the King of Spain (1541-1582), Captain general of the Spanish Army, Grandee of Spain
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (29 October 1507 – 11 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general, and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquis of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), and his successor, Philip II of Spain, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan (1555–1556), viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples (1556–1558), governor of the Netherlands (1567–1573) and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal (1580–1582) He is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, and repeatedly defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau in the battle of Jemmingen (1568) during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War.
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