Charles Emmanuel III (1701-1773), King of Sardinia and Duke of Savoy (1730-1773)
Charles Emmanuel III (Italian: Carlo Emanuele III di Savoia; 27 April 1701 – 20 February 1773) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death. He was born a Prince of Savoy in Turin to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and his first wife the French Anne Marie d'Orléans. His maternal grandparents were Prince Philippe of France and his first wife Princess Henrietta Anne, the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France. Charles Emmanuel was the oldest surviving brother of Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy - the mother of Louis XV of France; he was also the brother of Maria Luisa of Savoy, Queen of Spain as wife of his maternal second cousin Philip V of Spain. From his birth he was styled as the Duke of Aosta. At the time of his birth, Charles Emmanuel was not the heir to the Duchy of Savoy; his older brother Prince Victor Amadeus John Philip, Prince of Piedmont, was the heir apparent. Charles Emmanuel was the second of three males that would be born to his parents. His older brother died in 1715 and Charles Emmanuel then became heir apparent. As a result of his aid in the War of the Spanish Succession, Victor Amadeus II was made King of Sicily in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the war. Victor Amadeus was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 after objections from an alliance of four nations, including several of his former allies. Yet he retained his new title of King. The rule was that there were no kings within the Empire, but if a ruler subject to the Emperor also possessed a large territory outside the Empire he might claim this title as the Elector of Brandenburg had done, styling himself King in Prussia based on his sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia. However, Victor Amadeus in his late years was dominated by shyness and sadness, probably under the effect of some mental illness. In the end, on 3 September 1730, he abdicated, leaving the throne to Charles Emmanuel (nicknamed "Carlino"). After some time spent at his residence in Chambéry, however, Victor Amadeus started again to intervene in Charles' government, although this did not impede Charles from reintroducing the feasts and the general gay atmosphere that had been abolished from Turin in former years. In summer, 1731, after having recovered from a potentially fatal illness, Victor Amadeus returned to the throne. He accused his son of incompetence and established himself in Moncalieri; however, Charles Emmanuel managed to have Victor Amadeus arrested by the Crown's Council, in order to prevent him from attacking Milan and probably causing an invasion of Piedmont. The old king was confined to the Castle of Rivoli, where he later died without any further harm to Charles.
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