Jules Mazarin (1602-1661), Chief Minister to the French Monarch (1642-1661), Cardinal (1641)
Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers; (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarini or Mazarini, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death. Mazarin succeeded his mentor, Cardinal Richelieu. He was a noted collector of art and jewels, particularly diamonds, and he bequeathed the "Mazarin diamonds" to Louis XIV in 1661, some of which remain in the collection of the Louvre museum in Paris. His personal library was the origin of the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris. Following the end of the Thirty Years' War, Mazarin, as the de facto ruler of France, played a crucial role in establishing the Westphalian principles that would guide European states' foreign policy and the prevailing world order.
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