Portrait of Philip II (1527-1598), King of England and Ireland (with Mary I) from 1554 to 1558; King of Naples (1554-1598), King of Spain (1556-1598), Prince of Asturias (1528-1556), Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Lothier and Luxemburg, Marquis of Namur, Count Palatine of Burgundy, Count of Artois, Flanders and Hainaut (1555-1598), 1554
Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–1558). He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555 he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Philip arranged his marriage to 37-year-old Queen Mary I of England. His father ceded the crown of Naples, as well as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to him. Their marriage at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July 1554 took place just two days after their first meeting. Philip's view of the affair was entirely political. Under the terms of the Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary and Philip of Spain, Philip was to enjoy Mary I's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Coins were also to show the heads of both Mary and Philip.The marriage treaty also provided that England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father in any war. The Privy Council instructed that Philip and Mary should be joint signatories of royal documents, and this was enacted by an Act of Parliament, which gave him the title of king. In other words, Philip was to co-reign with his wife. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. The son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Spanish capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, which was owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel (the first Marqués de Távara). During his Philip reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. This is sometimes called the Golden Age. The expression "the empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his dominion. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive".
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