Portrait of Henry V (1386-1422), King of England and Lord of Ireland (1413-1422), Duke of Aquitaine (1400-1422)
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. In his youth, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, and against the powerful aristocratic House of Percy of Northumberland, at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry later came into political conflict with his father, Henry IV, whose health was increasingly precarious from 1405 onward, and who had consequently started to withdraw from government functions. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country, and asserted the pending English claims to the French throne. In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom, and Normandy became English for the first time in 200 years. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois (1401–1437). Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France.
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