Portrait of Elizabeth of York (1466-1503), Queen consort of England (1486-1503)
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was queen consort of England from 1486 until her death. As the wife of Henry VII, she was the first Tudor queen. She was the daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III, and she married the king following Henry's victory at the Battle of Bosworth which started the last phase of the Wars of the Roses. She was the mother of King Henry VIII. Therefore, she was the daughter, sister, niece, wife, mother, and grandmother of successive kings and queens of England. The period of Henry VI's readaption from October 1470 until April 1471 and the period between her father's death in 1483, when she was 17, and the making of peace between her mother and her uncle Richard were violent and anxious interludes in what was mostly a peaceful life. Her two brothers disappeared, the "Princes in the Tower", their fate uncertain. Although declared illegitimate she was welcomed back to court by her uncle Richard III, along with all of her sisters. As a Yorkist princess, the final victory of the Lancastrian faction in the War of the Roses may have seemed a further disaster, but Henry Tudor knew the importance of Yorkist support for his invasion and promised to marry her before he arrived in England; this was an important move; one which may well have contributed to hemorrhaging of Yorkist adherence to Richard III. Her marriage seems to have been successful, though her eldest son Arthur, Prince of Wales, died at age 15 in 1502, and three other children died young. She seems to have played little part in politics. Her surviving children became a king of England and queens of France and Scotland; it is through the Scottish Stuart dynasty that her many modern royal descendants trace their line.
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