Portrait of Francis I (1708-1765), Holy Roman Emperor (King in Germany) from 1745 to 1765; Duke of Lorraine (François III) from 1729 to 1737; Grand Duke of Tuscany (1737-1765), Archduke of Austria (with Maria Theresa) from 1745 to 1765
Francis I (German: Franz I Stefan; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis traded the duchy to the ex-Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in November 1738. Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans. On 31 January 1736 Francis had agreed to marry Maria Theresa. They married on 12 February in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. On 24 January 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law.
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